A Conceptual Framework for Lean Construction and Blockchain Synergy

Algan Tezel, Dimosthenis Kifokeris, Carlos Torres Formoso, Lauri Koskela, Christian Koch

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology referring to decentralized databases existing across multiple locations and participants, in which the need for intermediaries to process, validate or authenticate transactions is reduced or eliminated. Such transactions are synchronously held by computer nodes in distributed copies, with cryptographic signatures validated through consensus protocols and transparency achieved through peer-to-peer transactional access among the nodes. Blockchain-based applications can be preferred over centralized databases on the basis of high levels of trust, data security, immutability, transparency, and multiuser consensus protocols. There is growing interest in blockchain in the built environment, with a focus on procurement, the management of supply chain project-life cycle, smart cities, intelligent systems, sustainability, and decentralized organizations. However, there is little discussion on whether and how blockchain will affect the advances in lean construction (LC) and vice versa. This paper therefore proposes a framework that establishes interactions between blockchain and lean construction, which can potentially facilitate the implementation of both. It is based on a synthetic literature review. The results indicate that blockchain can facilitate the implementation of LC (e.g., recording and retrieving of Last Planner data), and vice versa (e.g., value stream mapping guiding the integration of blockchain with processes).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC30)
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright IGLC 2022 - IGLC papers can be freely distributed as long as they are kept in their original form. Specifically, it is not necessary to request permission to add IGLC papers into institutional repositories, neither from the IGLC nor from the proceeding editors.


  • lean construction
  • Distributed ledger technology
  • blockchain
  • smart contracts
  • framework
  • synergy


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