A Gravity Model of Net Benefits of EU Membership : The Case of Ukraine

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This paper develops a methodology for trade policy analysis of costs and
benefits of alternative regional integration scenarios. The methodology is based
on the disaggregated gravity equation, which is applied to calculate the impact of
the EU enlargement on integration strategies of non-member countries. In
particular, the paper measures the impact of the 2004 EU enlargement from the
standpoint of Ukraine - a country that has been lost in transition. This angle
allows estimating the costs of non-integration that occurred due to trade and
investment diversion, and forgone opportunity to carry out structural changes in
the Ukrainian economy. According to the results, the EU accession would have
had a positive effect on total export volumes and would have changed the
composition of Ukrainian exports by almost doubling exports of manufactured
goods by 2007. The costs of non-integration accumulate towards the end of the
investigated period. Projecting the results into the future clearly indicates that the
benefits of the EU accession for Ukraine would have been unambiguously positive
and would overweight benefits of the CIS integration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)676-702
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Economic Integration
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2010


  • Gravity Model, EU Enlargement, Ukraine, CIS, Heterogeneous Firms, Trade Policy


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