A Systematic Review of Behaviour Change Techniques within Interventions to Increase Vaccine Uptake among Ethnic Minority Populations

Winifred Ekezie, Aaisha Connor, Emma Gibson, Kamlesh Khunti, Atiya Kamal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


COVID-19 caused significant morbidity and mortality amongst ethnic minority groups, but vaccine uptake remained lower than non-minoritised groups. Interventions to increase vaccine uptake among ethnic minority communities are crucial. This systematic review synthesises and evaluates behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in interventions to increase vaccination uptake in ethnic minority populations. We searched five databases and grey literature sources. From 7637 records identified, 23 studies were included in the review. Interventions were categorised using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and Behaviour Change Taxonomy v1. Vaccines included influenza, pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningitis and hepatitis. Interventions were primarily delivered in health centres/clinics and community settings. Six BCW intervention functions and policy categories and 26 BCTs were identified. The main intervention functions used were education, persuasion and enablement. Overall, effective interventions had multi-components and were tailored to specific populations. No strong evidence was observed to recommend specific interventions, but raising awareness and involvement of community organisations was associated with positive effects. Several strategies are used to increase vaccine uptake among ethnic minority communities; however, these do not address all issues related to low vaccine acceptance. There is a strong need for an increased understanding of addressing vaccine hesitancy among ethnic minority groups.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1259
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
KK and WE are supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Applied Research Collaboration East Midlands (ARC EM) and the NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). KK is Director of the University of Leicester Centre for Ethnic Health Research.


  • barriers
  • behaviour change techniques
  • ethnic minorities
  • facilitators
  • interventions
  • minoritized groups
  • systematic review
  • vaccine hesitancy
  • vaccine uptake


Dive into the research topics of 'A Systematic Review of Behaviour Change Techniques within Interventions to Increase Vaccine Uptake among Ethnic Minority Populations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this