Ambiguity, multiple streams, and EU policy

R. Ackrill, Adrian Kay, N. Zahariadis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The multiple streams framework draws insight from interactions between agency and institutions to explore the impact of context, time and meaning on policy change and to assess the institutional and issue complexities permeating the European Union (EU) policy process. The authors specify the assumptions and structure of the framework and review studies that have adapted it to reflect more fully EU decision-making processes. The nature of policy entrepreneurship and policy windows are assessed to identify areas of improvement. Finally, the authors sketch out a research agenda that refines the logic of political manipulation which permeates the lens and the institutional complexity which frames the EU policy process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)871-887
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of European Public Policy
Issue number6
Early online date29 May 2013
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Ambiguity
  • complexity
  • policy
  • entrepreneurship
  • policy windows
  • multiple streams


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