An integrative framework for determining cross-national human resource management practices

Pawan S. Budhwar, Paul R. Sparrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Currently, debate in the area of cross-national human resource management (HRM) suggests that both “culture-bound” and “culture-free” factors and variables are important determinants of HRM policies and practices. HRM is presented as being context-specific and it is argued that with the growth of new markets world-wide, and increased levels of competition and globalization of business, there is a strong need for more cross-national HRM studies. However, the literature shows the absence of an integrated framework, which can help to highlight the different role that context-specific facets of HRM practices play. The nature of different determinants in different national and regional settings is rarely analyzed. This paper develops an integrated framework. It delineates the main distinctive facets associated with national factors, contingent variables, and organizational and human resource (HR) strategies and policies, that may be used to evaluate cross-national comparative HRM policies and practices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-403
Number of pages27
JournalHuman Resource Management Review
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2002


  • IHRM
  • comparative HRM
  • integrative framework
  • factors determining HRM


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