Analysis of Reciprocity Breakdown in Nonlinear Systems

Graeme Manson, Keith Worden, Michael Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The breakdown of the principle of reciprocity is a well-known phenomenon of nonlinear systems. A structure or system is said to exhibit reciprocity when the response at some point j to an input at some point i is identical to the response at point i when the same input is applied at point j. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by adopting a functional series representation which describes the input-output relationship. The frequency-domain Volterra Series representation utilises Higher-Order Frequency Response Functions (HFRFs) (generalisations of the linear FRF) to explain the behaviour of nonlinear systems. This breakdown in reciprocity may be observed through a breakdown in symmetry of HFRFs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number012031
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2012


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