Analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions in the palm oil supply chain in the VUCA world: A blockchain initiative

Zakaria El Hathat, V. G. Venkatesh, Tarik Zouadi, V. Raja Sreedharan, Arunmozhi Manimuthu, Yangyan Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As the world is becoming more VUCA for business operations, organizations are leveraging the competitive advantage through their supply chain practices. The food supply chain is no exception. Being competitive has become imperative in terms of sustainability and accountability of the business process. Therefore, organizations are adopting blockchain to track and trace the information flow to ensure a better business process. Further, to ensure sustainability, analyzing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions aids firms in achieving a reasonable improvement in the food supply chain. So, the present study collects carbon emissions data for palm oil production. The study evaluates palm oil production in the Sumatra region, Indonesia (Cradle to Port), through predictive modeling. Here, the palm production process is classified as cultivation, harvesting, and shipping. Then, the study evaluates the GHG emissions from the three phases to understand the carbon footprint in palm oil production. Finally, the study uses blockchain to track and trace the GHG emissions in the palm oil supply chain using Hyperledger Fabric self-executed smart contracts. The study has developed unique contributions in terms of developing predictive modeling, blockchain architecture, and deep learning in palm production to leverage the competitive advantage of the supply chain in the VUCA world for business excellence in the global market.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5563-5582
Number of pages20
JournalBusiness Strategy and the Environment
Issue number8
Early online date8 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • Hyperledger Fabric
  • VUCA world
  • blockchain
  • carbon emissions
  • competitive advantage
  • food supply chain
  • greenhouse gas
  • palm oil production
  • predictive modeling
  • smart contract


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