Biomass for energy

Tony Bridgwater*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bio-energy is now accepted as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future as biofuels in the form of gas, liquid or solid fuels or electricity and heat. There are three main routes to providing these biofuels - thermal conversion, biological conversion and physical conversion - all of which employ a range of chemical reactor configurations and designs. This review focuses on thermochemical conversion processes for their higher efficiencies, lower costs and greater versatility in providing a wide range of energy, fuel and chemical options. The technologies of gasification and fast pyrolysis are described, particularly the reactors that have been developed to provide the necessary conditions to optimise performance. The primary products that can be derived as gas, liquid and solid fuels are characterised, as well as the secondary products of electricity and/or heat, liquid fuels and a considerable number of chemicals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1755-1768
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2006


  • Bioenergy
  • Biofuels
  • Biomass
  • Gasification
  • Pyrolysis


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