Boiling Heat Transfer Evaluation in Nanoporous Surface Coatings

Uzair Sajjad*, Imtiyaz Hussain, Muhammad Imran*, Muhammad Sultan, Chi-Chuan Wang, Abdullah Saad Alsubaie, Khaled H. Mahmoud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study develops a deep learning method for predicting the boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of nanoporous coated surfaces. Nanoporous coated surfaces have been used extensively over the years to improve the performance of the boiling process. Despite the large amount of experimental data on pool boiling of coated nanoporous surfaces, precise mathematical-empirical approaches have not been developed to estimate the HTC. The proposed method is able to cope with the complex nature of the boiling of nanoporous surfaces with different working fluids with completely different thermophysical properties. The proposed deep learning method is applicable to a wide variety of substrates and coating materials manufactured by various manufacturing processes. The analysis of the correlation matrix confirms that the pore diameter, the thermal conductivity of the substrate, the heat flow, and the thermophysical properties of the working fluids are the most important independent variable parameters estimation under consideration. Several deep neural networks are designed and evaluated to find the optimized model with respect to its prediction accuracy using experimental data (1042 points). The best model could assess the HTC with an R2 = 0.998 and (mean absolute error) MAE% = 1.94.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3383
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 by the authors.
Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and
conditions of the Creative Commons
Attribution (CC BY) license (https://

Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of Taif University Researchers
Supporting Project number (TURSP-2020/162), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. The authors are
indebted to the financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under contracts 108-2221-E-009-058-MY3 and 109-2622-E-009-015. The support from Innovative UK and
Academy of Medical Sciences, Grant number 60558 and 62327 under Global challenge research fund
are also appreciated


  • boiling heat transfer
  • nanoporous coating
  • deep learning


Dive into the research topics of 'Boiling Heat Transfer Evaluation in Nanoporous Surface Coatings'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this