Carbon-Based Nanomaterial for Emerging Desalination Technologies: Electrodialysis and Capacitive Deionization

Khaled Elsaid, Ali Elkamel, Enas T. Sayed, Tabbi Wilberforce, Mohammad A. Abdelkareem, Abdul Ghani Olabi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter


The increasing demand for water supply along with limited natural freshwater supplies have led to the extensive utilization of desalination processes to fill such a gap. Common desalination processes which are either thermal- or membrane-based are energy-intensive processes, associated with severe environmental impacts. This in return has driven the efforts to develop new desalination technologies which are more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. Electrodialysis (ED) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising electrical-based desalination processes. Most of the developments in ED and DCI are related to electrode materials, which have to be of specific properties such as high electrical conductivity, porosity, and surface area, more specifically in the case of CDI. Carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene (Gr) and carbon nanotube (CNT) have gained huge interest over few years as efficient electrocatalysts for different applications. This work aims to explore and discuss the application of carbon-based nanomaterial, more specifically Gr and CNT in ED and CDI applications. It has been concluded that such carbon-based nanomaterials are cost-effective and highly efficient electrodes in ED and CDI applications with promising performance. Hence, these materials can be an economic substitute for noble and transition metals usually used as an electrode.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Smart Materials
Subtitle of host publicationThermal, Electrochemical and Electronic Materials
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780128157336
ISBN (Print)9780128157329
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Capacitive deionization
  • Carbon nanotube
  • Electrodialysis
  • Graphene


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