Carbon Dioxide Utilization? A Critical Review from Multiscale Perspective

Muhammad Yousaf, Muhammad Zaman, Asif Mahmood, Muhammad Imran*, Ali Elkamel, Muhammad Rizwan, Tabbi Wilberforce, Fahid Riaz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions contribute considerably towards increasing greenhouse effect. Carbon capture and storage can reduce CO2 emissions to a great extent but lacks economic feasibility. The economic feasibility of CO2 capture could be boosted by utilizing the captured gas to produce valuable end products. CO2 is a highly stable molecule; therefore, special catalysts and elevated conditions of temperature and pressure are required for its conversion. This review presents the current status of CO2 utilization processes from various aspects, including thermodynamic, economic, and environmental impacts. The use of process systems engineering (PSE) tools and techniques in a broad spectrum, to improve the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of these processes, is the major focus of this review. In this regard, a framework has also been presented showing the integration of various PSE techniques. All the related information in the form of tabulated data as well as qualitative and quantitative plots have been presented and critically analyzed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4890-4923
Number of pages34
JournalEnergy Science & Engineering
Issue number12
Early online date28 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Funding Information:
Higher Education Commision, Pakistan. Grant Numbers: NRPU, No: 6090/Federal/NRPU/R&D/HEC/2016
Aston University. Grant Number: 49396


  • chemical conversion
  • climate change mitigation
  • CO2 utilization
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • process systems engineering
  • sustainability


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