Collation of best practices for preparedness: lessons from disasters in Pakistan and Japan

Jonas Schwarz, Valentina Kascel, Muhammad Azmat*, Sebastian Kummer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study aims to compare the humanitarian supply chains and logistics of two countries in earthquake preparedness by modifying and using a previously established preparedness evaluation framework. Design/methodology/approach: A European flood emergency management system (FEMS) is a seven-dimensional framework to assess a country’s preparedness for flood emergencies. The FEMS framework was modified to apply to earthquakes. Leveraging a multiple explanatory case study approach with data analysis, the authors reconstructed the events of the earthquakes in Pakistan (2005) and Japan (2011) with an applied grading (1–5). Findings were evaluated within the adopted FEMS framework. From a practitioner’s perspective, the framework is applicable and can accelerate support in the field. Findings: Pakistan lacked emergency plans before the 2005 earthquake. In contrast, Japan possessed emergency plans before the disaster, helping minimise casualties. Overall, Japan demonstrated considerably better emergency management effectiveness. However, both countries significantly lacked the distribution of responsibilities among actors. Originality/value: Practical factors in the humanitarian supply chain are well understood. However, synthesising individual factors into a comprehensive framework is difficult, which the study solves by applying and adopting the FEMS framework to earthquakes. The developed framework allows practitioners a structured baseline for prioritising measures in the field. Furthermore, this study exemplifies the usefulness of cross-hazard research within emergency management and preparedness in a real-world scenario.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-330
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
Issue number3
Early online date31 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © Jonas Schwarz, Valentina Kascel, Muhammad Azmat and Sebastian Kummer. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at


  • Disaster events
  • Earthquake Japan 2011
  • Earthquake Pakistan 2005
  • Emergency management
  • Humanitarian logistics
  • Preparedness
  • Disaster Relief


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