Composite Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria

Michael O. Ukoba, Ogheneruona E. Diemuodeke*, Mohammed Alghassab, Henry I. Njoku, Muhammad Imran, Zafar A. Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents eight hybrid renewable energy (RE) systems that are derived from solar, wind and biomass, with energy storage, to meet the energy demands of an average household in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The resource assessments show that the solar insolation, wind speed (at 30 m hub height) and biomass in the country range, respectively, from 4.38–6.00 kWh/m2/day, 3.74 to 11.04 m/s and 5.709–15.80 kg/household/day. The HOMER software was used to obtain optimal configurations of the eight hybrid energy systems along the six geopolitical zones’ RE resources. The eight optimal systems were further subjected to a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis, which considers technical, economic, environmental and socio-cultural criteria. The TOPSIS-AHP composite procedure was adopted for the MCDM analysis in order to have more realistic criteria weighting factors. In all the eight techno-economic optimal system configurations considered, the biomass generator-solar PV-battery energy system (GPBES) was the best system for all the geopolitical zones. The best system has the potential of capturing carbon from the atmosphere, an attribute that is desirous for climate change mitigation. The cost of energy (COE) was seen to be within the range of 0.151–0.156 US$/kWh, which is competitive with the existing electricity cost from the national grid, average 0.131 US$/kWh. It is shown that the Federal Government of Nigeria favorable energy policy towards the adoption of biomass-to-electricity systems would make the proposed system very affordable to the rural households.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5732
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2020

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© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
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  • Energy demand
  • Multi-criteria decision making
  • Optimal hybrid system
  • Renewable energy


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