Conclusion: on multiple levels of analysis, context, contingency and capital

Paul Sparrow, Helen Shipton, Pawan Budhwar, Alan Brown

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter


In this concluding chapter, we bring together the threads and reflections on the chapters contained in this text and show how they relate to multi-level issues. The book has focused on the world of Human Resource Management (HRM) and the systems and practices it must put in place to foster innovation. Many of the contributions argue that in order to bring innovation about, organisations have to think carefully about the way in which they will integrate what is, in practice, organisationally relevant — but socially distributed — knowledge. They need to build a series of knowledge-intensive activities and networks, both within their own boundaries and across other important external inter-relationships. In so doing, they help to co-ordinate important information structures. They have, in effect, to find ways of enabling people to collaborate with each other at lower cost, by reducing both the costs of their co-ordination and the levels of unproductive search activity. They have to engineer these behaviours by reducing the risks for people that might be associated with incorrect ideas and help individuals, teams and business units to advance incomplete ideas that are so often difficult to codify. In short, a range of intangible assets must flow more rapidly throughout the organisation and an appropriate balance must be found between the rewards and incentives associated with creativity, novelty and innovation, versus the risks that innovation may also bring.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman resource management, innovation and performance
EditorsHelen Shipton, Pawan Budhwar, Paul Sparrow, Alan Brown
Place of PublicationLondon (UK)
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-137-46519-1
ISBN (Print)978-1-349-56307-4
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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