COOPER-framework: a unified process for non-parametric projects

Ali Emrouznejad*, Kristof de Witte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Practitioners assess performance of entities in increasingly large and complicated datasets. If non-parametric models, such as Data Envelopment Analysis, were ever considered as simple push-button technologies, this is impossible when many variables are available or when data have to be compiled from several sources. This paper introduces by the 'COOPER-framework' a comprehensive model for carrying out non-parametric projects. The framework consists of six interrelated phases: Concepts and objectives, On structuring data, Operational models, Performance comparison model, Evaluation, and Result and deployment. Each of the phases describes some necessary steps a researcher should examine for a well defined and repeatable analysis. The COOPER-framework provides for the novice analyst guidance, structure and advice for a sound non-parametric analysis. The more experienced analyst benefits from a check list such that important issues are not forgotten. In addition, by the use of a standardized framework non-parametric assessments will be more reliable, more repeatable, more manageable, faster and less costly. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1573-1586
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2010

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in European journal of operational research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Emrouznejad, A & de Witte, K, 'COOPER-framework: a unified process for non-parametric projects' European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 207, no. 3 (2010) DOI


  • COOPER-framework
  • DEA
  • non-parametric efficiency analysis
  • unified process


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