Correlates of depression in bipolar disorder

Paul J. Moore, Max A. Little, Patrick E. McSharry, Guy M. Goodwin, John R. Geddes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = -0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson-Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number20132320
    Number of pages9
    JournalProceeding of the Royal Society: Series B
    Issue number1776
    Early online date18 Dec 2013
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014

    Bibliographical note

    © 2013 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Funding: NIHR - Grants for Applied Research Programme (grant reference no. RP-PG-0108-10087).

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    • bipolar disorder
    • mood variability
    • psychiatry
    • public healthcare
    • time-series analysis


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