Developing accurate models of the human airways

Lindsay J. Marshall*, Wilson Oguejiofor, Rachel S. Willetts, Helen R. Griffiths, Andrew Devitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives Particle delivery to the airways is an attractive prospect for many potential therapeutics, including vaccines. Developing strategies for inhalation of particles provides a targeted, controlled and non-invasive delivery route but, as with all novel therapeutics, in vitro and in vivo testing are needed prior to clinical use. Whilst advanced vaccine testing demands the use of animal models to address safety issues, the production of robust in vitro cellular models would take account of the ethical framework known as the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal use), by permitting initial screening of potential candidates prior to animal use. There is thus a need for relevant, realistic in vitro models of the human airways. Key findings Our laboratory has designed and characterised a multi-cellular model of human airways that takes account of the conditions in the airways and recapitulates many salient features, including the epithelial barrier and mucus secretion. Summary Our human pulmonary models recreate many of the obstacles to successful pulmonary delivery of particles and therefore represent a valid test platform for screening compounds and delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-472
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Issue number3
Early online date31 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Marshall, LJ, Oguejiofor, W, Willetts, RS, Griffiths, HR & Devitt, A 2015, 'Developing accurate models of the human airways' Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology, vol 67, no. 3, pp. 464-472, which has been published in final form at


  • cellular drug uptake and absorption
  • drug delivery to specific tissues


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