Dynamic measurement of accommodation and pupil size using the portable Grand Seiko FR-5000 autorefractor

James Stuart Wolffsohn*, Kazuhiko Ukai, Bernard Gilmartin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the portable Grand Seiko FR-5000 autorefractor to allow objective, continuous, open-field measurement of accommodation and pupil size for the investigation of the visual response to real-world environments and changes in the optical components of the eye. METHODS. The FR-5000 projects a pair of infrared horizontal and vertical lines on either side of fixation, analyzing the separation of the bars in the reflected image. The measurement bars were turned on permanently and the video output of the FR-5000 fed into a PC for real-time analysis. The calibration between infrared bar separation and the refractive error was assessed over a range of 10.0 D with a model eye. Tolerance to longitudinal instrument head shift was investigated over a ±15 mm range and to eye alignment away from the visual axis over eccentricities up to 25.0°. The minimum pupil size for measurement was determined with a model eye. RESULTS. The separation of the measurement bars changed linearly (r = 0.99), allowing continuous online analysis of the refractive state at 60 Hz temporal and approximately 0.01 D system resolution with pupils >2 mm. The pupil edge could be analyzed on the diagonal axes at the same rate with a system resolution of approximately 0.05 mm. The measurement of accommodation and pupil size were affected by eccentricity of viewing and instrument focusing inaccuracies. CONCLUSIONS. The small size of the instrument together with its resolution and temporal properties and ability to measure through a 2 mm pupil make it useful for the measurement of dynamic accommodation and pupil responses in confined environments, although good eye alignment is important. Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Optometry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-310
Number of pages5
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2006


  • autorefractor
  • pupil
  • continuous
  • dynamic
  • accommodation


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