Efficacy of the 4F Feedback Model: A Game-Based Assessment in University Education

Sara de Freitas, Victoria Uren, Kristian Kiili, Manuel Ninaus, Panagiotis Petridis, Petros Lameras, Ian Dunwell, Sylvester Arnab, Stephen Jarvis, Kam Star

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Feedback is a critical aspect of optimised learning design, but there are few, if any, feedback models that map different types of feedback and how they may assist students to increase performance and enhance their learning experience. This research paper outlines a feedback model as an extension of the four-dimensional framework which includes a consideration of the type, the content, the format, and the frequency of feedback, as well as the agent which delivers it. This model is based upon an understanding of learning in the context of designing learning experiences and utilises a game-based model of learning to understand the importance of motivation and autonomy in learners to enhance and accelerate learning. The framework is developed and reflected upon by analysing two cases: a medical triage case in which the timing and frequency of feedback proved critical, and a business simulation which illuminated the need for a range of types of feedback and to be aware of the possibility of different agents (instructor peer and game) that can deliver feedback. The extended model may help game and learning designers alike to discern different types of feedback, both in games and more generally, in more explicit and nuanced ways.
Original languageEnglish
Article number99
Number of pages16
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Funding: This research is partly funded by: The UK Department of Trade and Industry Technology Program: The Serious Games-Engaging Training Solutions Project (SG-ETS), Partners included Birmingham, London, and Sheffield Universities and Trusim, VEGA Group, PLC, and also by the Strategic Research Council (SRC) (Finland).


  • 4F model
  • agents
  • feedback
  • feedback format
  • feedback frequency
  • games
  • learning design


Dive into the research topics of 'Efficacy of the 4F Feedback Model: A Game-Based Assessment in University Education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this