Evaluation of chloride absorption in preconditioned concrete cubes

Muniswamappa N. Balakrishna, Robert Evans, Fouad Mohammad, Mujib Rahman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The chloride contamination will occur from the application of de-icing salts. It was confirmed that the application of de-icing salts
caused a significant reduction in structural and serviceability reliabilities. The chemicals used in the snow and ice control operations
(de-icers) may cause corrosion damage to the transportation infrastructure such as reinforced/pre-stressed concrete structures and
steel bridges. There are many ways to manage the corrosive effects of de-icers, such as selection of high-quality concrete, adequate concrete cover and alternative reinforcement, control of the ingress and accumulation of deleterious species, injection of beneficial
species into concrete, and use of non-corrosive de-icer alternatives and optimal application rates. In fact, snow and ice on streets
and highways are a major threat to human life and limb. Traffic accidents and fatalities climb as snow and ice reduce traction on
roadways. Lengthened emergency response times create additional risks for persons in urgent need of medical care, particularly in
cases of heart attacks, burns, childbirth and poisoning. Thus the de-icing salts are necessary to provide safe winter driving conditions
and save lives by preventing the freezing of a layer of ice on concrete infrastructure. However, the safety and sense of comfort
provided by these salts is not without a price, as these salts can greatly contribute to the degradation and decay of reinforced
concrete transportation systems. The importance of chloride concentration as a durability-based material property has received
greater attention only after the revelation that chloride-induced corrosion is the major problem for concrete durability. Therefore,
there is a need to quantify the chloride concentration in concrete which is of paramount importance. The present research work was
made an attempt to interpret the concrete chloride absorption in ordered to characterize the different concrete mixtures design for
in case of pre-conditioned concrete cubes such as dry/fully/partially saturated condition and salt ponded with chloride solution for
about 160 days. Thus the objectives of this present research are such as: First, this research will examine the influence of
conditioning such as dry/fully/partially saturated condition on the results of chloride concentration performed on concrete cubes
with different mixtures proportion in which slump, and w/c ratio value was varied with constant compressive strength as in the First
case and compressive strength, and w/c ratio value varied with constant slump as in the Second case. Seventy-two concrete cubes
(100 mm3
) with Grades of concrete ranges from 25 to 40 N/mm2 were prepared and evaluate the chloride absorption under different
exposure condition. It’s concluded from the results that, in dry/saturated conditioned concrete cubes, the chloride absorption value
was increased in all designed mixtures type. Similarly, the average chloride concentration was decreased in solvent based and water
based impregnation DCC/PSC/FSC cubes as when compared to control DCC/PSC/FSC cubes for constant higher compressive
strength and varied slump value as well as varied compressive strength and constant slump value. Whereas the average chloride
absorption was increased in solvent based and water based impregnation DCC/PSC/FSC cubes for lesser compressive strength and
constant slump value as when compared to constant higher compressive strength and varied slump value and the chloride
concentration was going on decreases with increased compressive strength and constant slump value.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-157
JournalMalaysian Journal of Civil Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2018

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