Evaluation of dry eye

Samantha McGinnigle, Shehzad A Naroo, Frank Eperjesi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dry eye is a common yet complex condition. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors can cause dysfunction of the lids, lacrimal glands, meibomian glands, ocular surface cells, or neural network. These problems would ultimately be expressed at the tear film-ocular surface interface. The manifestations of these problems are experienced as symptoms such as grittiness, discomfort, burning sensation, hyperemia, and secondary epiphora in some cases. Accurate investigation of dry eye is crucial to correct management of the condition. Techniques can be classed according to their investigation of tear production, tear stability, and surface damage (including histological tests). The application, validity, reliability, compatibility, protocols, and indications for these are important. The use of a diagnostic algorithm may lead to more accurate diagnosis and management. The lack of correlation between signs and symptoms seems to favor tear film osmolarity, an objective biomarker, as the best current clue to correct diagnosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-316
Number of pages24
JournalSurvey of ophthalmology
Issue number4
Early online date20 Jun 2012
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • dry eye
  • tear quality
  • ocular surface
  • tear secretion
  • tear break up
  • osmolarity
  • evaporation
  • lipid layer
  • staining


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