Evidential evaluation of DNA profiles using a discrete statistical model implemented in the DNA LiRa software

Roberto Puch-Solis*, Tim Clayton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The high sensitivity of the technology for producing profiles means that it has become routine to produce profiles from relatively small quantities of DNA. The profiles obtained from low template DNA (LTDNA) are affected by several phenomena which must be taken into consideration when interpreting and evaluating this evidence. Furthermore, many of the same phenomena affect profiles from higher amounts of DNA (e.g. where complex mixtures has been revealed). In this article we present a statistical model, which forms the basis of software DNA LiRa, and that is able to calculate likelihood ratios where one to four donors are postulated and for any number of replicates. The model can take into account dropin and allelic dropout for different contributors, template degradation and uncertain allele designations. In this statistical model unknown parameters are treated following the Empirical Bayesian paradigm. The performance of LiRa is tested using examples and the outputs are compared with those generated using two other statistical software packages likeLTD and LRmix. The concept of ban efficiency is introduced as a measure for assessing model sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-228
Number of pages9
JournalForensic Science International: Genetics
Issue number1
Early online date21 Apr 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2014


  • Ban efficiency
  • Degradation
  • Dropin
  • Dropout
  • Likelihood ratio
  • Replicates


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