How much force?

Sarah V. Hainsworth

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter


The question of how much force was required to create a particular injury is one that pathologists are often required to answer as part of the investigation of any serious injury that may or may not result in death. Many implements are used in causing either sharp or blunt force trauma, and this chapter reviews some of the important features in determining how much force was required to create a stabbing or slashing injury with a sharp weapon and gives some additional insights into forces required for biting and creating blunt force trauma with either bottles or other weapons. It is important to consider the weapon type and geometry and also the actions of both the victim and the assailant to give as full a picture as possible as to how different injuries arise. Additionally, the structure and mechanical properties of skin are an important factor in determining the amount of force required for penetration.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEssentials of Autopsy Practice
Subtitle of host publicationInnovations, Updates and Advances in Practice
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780857295194
ISBN (Print)9780857295187
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


Dive into the research topics of 'How much force?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this