HRM in context: applicability of HRM models in India

Pawan S. Budhwar, Naresh Khatri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using the core aspects of five main models of human resource management (HRM), this article investigates the dominant HRM practices in the Indian manufacturing sector. The evaluation is conducted in the context of the recently liberalized economic environment. In response to ever-increasing levels of globalization of business, the article initially highlights the need for more cross-national comparative HRM research. Then it briefly analyzes the five models of HRM (namely, the `Matching model'; the `Harvard model'; the `Contextual model'; the `5-P model'; and the `European model') and identifies the main research questions emerging from these that could be used to reveal and highlight the HRM practices in different national/regional settings. The findings of the research are based on a questionnaire survey of 137 large Indian firms and 24 in-depth interviews in as many firms. The examination not only helped to present the scenario of HRM practices in the Indian context but also the logic dictating the presence of such practices. The article contributes to the fields of cross-national HRM and industrial relations research. It also has key messages for policy makers and opens avenues for further research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-356
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2001


  • determinants of HRM
  • developing countries
  • India
  • international HRM
  • models of HRM
  • human resource management


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