Imaging of the human fundus in the clinical setting: past present and future

Antonio Calcagni, Jonathan Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The human fundus is a complex structure that can be easily visualized and the world of ophthalmology is going through a golden era of new and exciting fundus imaging techniques; recent advances in technology have allowed a significant improvement in the imaging modalities clinicians have available to formulate a diagnostic and treatment plan for the patient, but there is constant on-going work to improve current technology and create new ideas in order to gather as much information as possible from the human fundus. In this article we shall summarize the imaging techniques available in the standard medical retina clinic (i.e. not limited to the research lab) and delineate the technologies that we believe will have a significant impact on the way clinicians will assess retinal and choroidal pathology in the not too distant future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-47
Number of pages6
JournalUS Ophthalmic Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

Bibliographical note

© TOUCH MEDICAL MEDIA 2013. US Ophthalmic Review is a peer-reviewed, open access, bi-annual journal comprising review articles, case reports, practice guides, theoretical discussions, and original research. It features balanced and comprehensive articles written by leading authorities, addressing the most important and salient developments in the field of ophthalmology.


  • adaptive optics
  • autofluorescence
  • confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope
  • fluorescein angiograph
  • indocyanine green angiography
  • multispectral
  • ophthalmoscopy
  • optical coherence tomography
  • retinal imaging
  • retinal oximetry
  • retro-mode imaging
  • wide-angle


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