Impact of diet composition on blood glucose regulation

Wendy R. Russell, Athanasia Baka, Inger Björck, Nathalie Delzenne, Dan Gao, Helen R. Griffiths, Ellie Hadjilucas, Kristiina Juvonen, Sampo Lahtinen, Mirian Lansink, Luc van Loon, Hannu Mykkänen, Gabriele Riccardi, Elin Östman, Sophie Vinoy, Martin O. Weickert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycaemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarises the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, non-nutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-590
Number of pages50
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number4
Early online date12 Nov 2013
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Nov 2013

Bibliographical note

© ILSI Europe. This is an Open Access article. Non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly attributed, cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way, is permitted. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.


  • postprandial glycaemia
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin resistance
  • human dietary intervention
  • diabetes


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