Influence of anti-ageing compounds on rheological properties of bitumen

Yangming Gao, Yuqing Zhang*, Eman L. Omairey, Sahar Al-Malaika, Husam Sheena

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different anti-ageing compounds (AACs) on the oxidative stability, rheological and mechanical properties of bitumen. Modified bitumen samples containing six different AAC combinations, with five samples containing Irganox acid (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydoxyphenylpropionic acid), a hindered phenol polymer-based antioxidant, were fabricated and aged under different conditions using a Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO) as well as a Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). The oxidative stabilising performance (anti-ageing) of the AACs was examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The effect of the AAC-modified bitumen on different rheological and mechanical properties was investigated - complex viscosity, linear viscoelastic (LVE) properties, fatigue and rutting - using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). The results illustrated that all the AAC-combinations examined afforded good oxidative stability to the base bitumen, with outstanding anti-ageing performance achieved by formulations C, D, E and F (Irganox acid:NaMMT, Irganox acid:furfural without or with DLTDP or NaMMT). The rheological results showed that the AAC-modified bitumen samples displayed non-Newtonian characteristics associated with simple thermo-rheological materials. The AAC formulations A (DLTDP:furfural), D (Irganox acid:furfural) and F (DLTDP:Irganox acid:furfural) were shown to significantly strengthen the resistance of the bitumen samples to fatigue cracking. In contrast to Irganox acid:furfural combination, the addition of the NaMMT nanofiller to this mixture was found to enhance the rutting resistance of the aged bitumen samples.
Original languageEnglish
Article number128559
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date5 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge the support from the PPP Research Unit, CEAC, Aston University, UK. This work is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 101030767.


  • Anti-ageing compounds
  • Bitumen
  • Fatigue cracking
  • Rheological properties
  • Rutting resistance


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