Investigating Turkey's national innovation and learning system

Banu Bozkurt, Kirit Vaidya

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


The national systems of innovation (NIS) approach focuses on the patterns and the determinants of innovation processes from the perspective of nation-states. This paper reports on continuing work on the application of an NIS model to the development of technological capability in Turkey. Initial assessment of the literature shows that there are a number of alternative conceptualisations of NIS. An attempt by the Government to identify a NIS for Turkey shows the main actors in the system but does not pay sufficient attention to the processes of interactions between agents within the system. An operational model should be capable of representing these processes and interactions and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the NIS. For industrialising countries, it is also necessary to incorporate learning mechanisms into the model. Further, there are different levels of innovation and capability in different sectors which the national perspective may not reflect. This paper is arranged into three sections. The first briefly explains the basics of the national innovation and learning system. Although there is no single accepted definition of NIS, alternative definitions reviewed share some common characteristics. In the second section, an NIS model is applied to Turkey in order to identify the elements, which characterise the country’s NIS. This section explains knowledge flow and defines the relations between the actors within the system. The final section draws on the “from imitation to innovation” model apparently so successful in East Asia and assesses its applicability to Turkey. In assessing Turkey’s NIS, the focus is on the automotive and textile sectors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIAMOT 2004
Subtitle of host publication13th International Conference on Management of Technology
EditorsYasser Hosni, Roy Smith, Tarek Khalil
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Event13th international conference on management of technology - Washington DC, United States
Duration: 3 Apr 20047 Apr 2004


Conference13th international conference on management of technology
Abbreviated titleIAMOT 2004
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWashington DC
OtherNew directions in technology management: changing collaboration between government, industry and university


  • national innovation and learning system
  • Turkey
  • limitation to innovation


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