Lichens, lichenometry and global warming

Richard A. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to specialist publication or newspaperArticle


Lichenometry is one of many techniques now available for estimating the elapsed time since the exposure of a substratum. Its advantages include an ability to date surfaces during the last 500 years, a time interval in which radiocarbon dating is least efficient, and provides a quick, cheap, and relatively accurate date for a substratum.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages4
Specialist publicationMicrobiologist
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2004


  • lichenometry
  • radiocarbon dating
  • substratum


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