Microscopy imaging of liposomes: from coverslips to environmental SEM

Sagida Bibi, Randip Kaur, Malou Henriksen-Lacey, Sarah E McNeil, Jitinder Wilkhu, Eric Lattmann, Dennis Christensen, Afzal-Ur-Rahman Mohammed, Yvonne Perrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A plethora of techniques for the imaging of liposomes and other bilayer vesicles are available. However, sample preparation and the technique chosen should be carefully considered in conjunction with the information required. For example, larger vesicles such as multilamellar and giant unilamellar vesicles can be viewed using light microscopy and whilst vesicle confirmation and size prior to additional physical characterisations or more detailed microscopy can be undertaken, the technique is limited in terms of resolution. To consider the options available for visualising liposome-based systems, a wide range of microscopy techniques are described and discussed here: these include light, fluorescence and confocal microscopy and various electron microscopy techniques such as transmission, cryo, freeze fracture and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Their application, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed with regard to their use in analysis of lipid vesicles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-150
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number1-2
Early online date21 Dec 2010
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2011


  • lipids
  • liposomes
  • scanning microscopy


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