Model for payback time of using retired electric vehicle batteries in residential energy storage systems

Yazan Al-Wreikat, Emily Kate Attfield, Jose Ricardo Sodre*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work presents a mathematical model for the payback time of reusing electric vehicle batteries as residential energy storage systems from the end of life of automotive application. The model was developed using MATLAB software and calculates the payback time of a battery energy storage system (BESS) under different scenarios while considering the daily electricity consumption profile for a UK household. The results show that battery purchase price, BESS capacity, electricity unit rates and electricity demand profile are variables with large effects on the payback time. At the simulated baseline condition with residential households of two people, a BESS using second-life batteries from five different vehicle models showed payback time ranging from 8.3 to 12.8 years. The combination of battery rightsizing to attend peak and standard demand, battery price drop by 46%, reaching the level where EV price becomes competitive with conventional vehicles, and BESS application to three or more households provides the most favourable scenario with the minimum payback time of 4.8 years. Further reduction in the payback time of up to 41% can be achieved with subsidised off-peak electricity unit rate.
Original languageEnglish
Article number124975
Early online date3 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY licence 4.0


  • Electric vehicle batteries
  • Battery energy storage system
  • Payback time
  • Reusability study
  • Energy model


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