Multi-band programmable gain Raman amplifier

Uiara Celine De Moura, Md Asif Iqbal, Morteza Kamalian-kopae, Lukasz Krzczanowicz, Francesco Da Ros, Ann Margareth Rosa Brusin, Andrea Carena, Wladek Forysiak, Sergei K. Turitsyn, Darko Zibar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Optical communication systems, operating in C-band, are reaching their theoretically achievable capacity limits. An attractive and economically viable solution to satisfy the future data rate demands is to employ the transmission across the full low-loss spectrum encompassing O, E, S, C and L band of the single mode fibers (SMF). Utilizing all five bands offers a bandwidth of up to ~53.5 THz (365 nm) with loss below 0.4 dB/km. A key component in realizing multi-band optical communication systems is the optical amplifier. Apart from having an ultra-wide gain profile, the ability of providing arbitrary gain profiles, in a controlled way, will become an essential feature. The latter will allow for signal power spectrum shaping which has a broad range of applications such as the maximization of the achievable information rate × distance product, the elimination of static and lossy gain flattening filters (GFF) enabling a power efficient system design, and the gain equalization of optical frequency combs. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a multi-band (S+C+L) programmable gain optical amplifier using only Raman effects and machine learning. The amplifier achieves >1000 programmable gain profiles within the range from 3.5 to 30 dB, in an ultra-fast way and a very low maximum error of 1.6⋅10−2 dB/THz over an ultra-wide bandwidth of 17.6-THz (140.7-nm)
Original languageEnglish
Article number9239870
Pages (from-to)429-438
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number2
Early online date26 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

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Funding: This work was supported by the European Union’s
H2020 program (Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant 754462
and MSCA-ITN WON grant 814276), the European
Research Council (ERC CoG FRECOM grant 771878),
the Villum Foundations (VYI OPTIC-AI grant no.
29344), and the UK EPSRC grants EP/M009092/1 and


  • Machine learning
  • multi-band systems
  • neural networks
  • optical amplifiers
  • optical communications


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