Nonlinear Noise of Low Transmission Penalty Dual-Stage Discrete Raman Amplifier

Lukasz Krzczanowicz, Md Asif Iqbal, Ian D Phillips, Mohammad Al-Khateeb, Mingming Tan, Paul Harper, Wladek Forysiak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We experimentally characterise the linear and nonlinear performance of a >70nm, dual-stage, 19.5dB average net gain discrete Raman amplifier using different nonlinear fibres in the second stage. We propose an architecture built with a combination of IDF and SMF, and compare its performance with amplifiers built with conventionally used nonlinear fibre types (IDF-IDF, IDF-DCF). The measured FWM product power shows the IDF-SMF architecture to generate less nonlinear interference when compared to other schemes. We test the amplifiers with 5x120Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM signals in a recirculating loop at 10 recirculations of 93.4km SMF fibre, where the power sweep shows up to 2dB optimum launch power difference, with the maximum Q2 factor varying by up to 1.6dB. Using the optimum transmission point we measure a Q2=8.8dB at 35 recirculations of 93.4km transmission (3269km) with the proposed IDF-SMF scheme, which is >460km further than the other tested architectures. All characterised schemes performed similarly in the linear noise regime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2076 - 2079
JournalIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Issue number23
Early online date31 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2018

Bibliographical note

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Funding: EPSRC project EP/M009092/1 (ToM3).


  • Discrete Raman Amplification, Broadband Transmission, Nonlinearity Characterisation


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