Novel Nanoaggregates from Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) for Inhalational Management of Cystic Fibrosis Using Dry Powder Inhalers

Hadeel Aburass, Nisreen Dahshan, Hamad Alyami, Affiong Iyire, Eman Zmaily Dahmash*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Phoenix dactylifera extracts have shown efficacy as antioxidants and antibacterials for the treatment of lung diseases; however, the choice of route of administration remains a problem. The use of natural antibacterial remedies for the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is promising due to recurring bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have also been identified as a patient-friendly, noninvasive method for local delivery of drugs to the lungs. Therefore, this work, which is the first of its kind, aimed to formulate nanoparticles of date palm extracts as DPIs and evaluate their aerodynamic and antibacterial biofilm characteristics for the potential treatment of CF. Method: Chitosan-based nanoparticles (CDN) comprising aqueous date fruit extract with increasing concentrations of chitosan (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% w/v) were prepared. The in vitro aerosolization of the formulations was studied using a next-generation impactor (NGI), and good aerosolization profiles were achieved. The produced nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR and XRD to confirm physical properties and TEM and zeta sizer to confirm shape and size. The antimicrobial activity of CDN was evaluated using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm model cultured in an artificial sputum medium (ASM) mimicking cystic fibrosis conditions in the lungs. Results: Nanoparticles containing 0.05% w/v chitosan demonstrated the highest encapsulation efficiency (55.91%) and delivered the highest emitted dose (98.92%) and fine particle fraction (42.62%). CDN demonstrated the first-time-ever reported significant 3.3 log-cycle inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm cultured in ASM. TEM images revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average size of 42.98 ± 19.19 nm. FTIR and XRD studies demonstrated the compatibility of the components with the presence of the characteristic features of chitosan and date powder. Conclusions: This novel work showcases CDN as a prophylactic adjuvant for the management of cystic fibrosis using DPI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1764-1777
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Innovation
Issue number4
Early online date14 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Funding Information: This research project was funded by Isra University (Jordan) for Hadeel Aburass towards her MSc studies.


  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Date palm
  • Dry powder inhaler
  • Nanoparticles
  • Phoenix dactylifera
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm


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