Numerical modeling of in-flight characteristics of Inconel 625 particles during high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

S. Gu*, D.G. McCartney, C.N. Eastwick, K. Simmons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict particle dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a long, parallel-sided nozzle. The particle transport equations are solved in a Lagrangian manner and coupled with the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, steady state, chemically reacting, turbulent gas flow. Within the particle transport model, the total flow of the particle phase is modeled by tracking a small number of particles through the continuum gas flow, and each of these individual particles is tracked independently through the continuous phase. Three different combustion chamber designs were modeled, and the in-flight particle characteristics of Inconel were 625 studied. Results are presented to show the effect of process parameters, such as particle injection speed and location, total gas flow rate, fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio, and particle size on the particle dynamic behavior for a parallel-sided, 12 mm long combustion chamber. The results indicate that the momentum and heat transfer to particles are primarily influenced by total gas flow. The 12 mm long chamber can achieve an optimum performance for Inconel 625 powder particles ranging in diameter from 20 to 40 μm. At a particular spraying distance, an optimal size of particles is observed with respect to particle temperature. The effect of different combustion chamber dimensions on particle dynamics was also investigated. The results obtained for both a 22 mm long chamber and also one with a conical, converging design are compared with the baseline data for the 12 mm chamber.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-213
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004


  • CFD
  • gas dynamics
  • HVOF
  • particle modeling


Dive into the research topics of 'Numerical modeling of in-flight characteristics of Inconel 625 particles during high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this