Optimization of the Nutritional Environment for Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells using Design of Experiments – A Proof of Concept

Patricia P. Esteban, Hamza Patel, Farlan Veraitch, Rana Khalife*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The utilization of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in cell therapy has a tremendous potential but faces many practical challenges, including costs associated with cell culture media and growth factors. There is an immediate need to establish an optimized culture platform to direct the differentiation of hiPSCs into germ layers in a defined nutritional microenvironment to generate cost-effective and robust therapeutics. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal nutritional environment by mimicking the in vivo concentrations of three key factors (glucose, pyruvate, and oxygen) during the spontaneous differentiation of hiPSCs derived from cord blood, which greatly differ from the in vitro expansion and differentiation scenarios. Moreover, we hypothesized that the high glucose, pyruvate, and oxygen concentrations found in typical growth media could inhibit the differentiation of certain lineages. A design of experiments was used to investigate the interaction between these three variables during the spontaneous differentiation of hiPSCs. We found that lower oxygen and glucose concentrations enhance the expression of mesodermal (Brachyury, KIF1A) and ectodermal (Nestin, β-Tubulin) markers. Our findings present a novel approach for efficient directed differentiation of hiPSCs through the manipulation of media components while simultaneously avoiding the usage of growth factors thus reducing costs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3143
JournalBiotechnology Progress
Issue number4
Early online date8 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


  • design of experiments
  • germ layer differentiation
  • human-induced pluripotent stem cells


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimization of the Nutritional Environment for Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells using Design of Experiments – A Proof of Concept'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this