Organizing the innovation process: complementarities in innovation networking

James H. Love, Stephen Roper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper contributes to the developing literature on complementarities in organizational design. We test for the existence of complementarities in the use of external networking between stages of the innovation process in a sample of UK and German manufacturing plants. Our evidence suggests some differences between the UK and Germany in terms of the optimal combination of innovation activities in which to implement external networking. Broadly, there is more evidence of complementarities in the case of Germany, with the exception of the product engineering stage. By contrast, the UK exhibits generally strong evidence of substitutability in external networking in different stages, except between the identification of new products and product design and development stages. These findings suggest that previous studies indicating strong complementarity between internal and external knowledge sources have provided only part of the picture of the strategic dilemmas facing firms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-290
Number of pages18
JournalIndustry and Innovation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009

Bibliographical note

This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Love, J. H., & Roper, S. (2009). Organizing the innovation process: complementarities in innovation networking. Industry and innovation, 16(3), 273-290. Industry and innovation 2009 © Taylor & Francis, available online at:


  • innovation
  • networking
  • complementarities
  • UK
  • Germany


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