Protection schemes for meshed VSC-HVDC transmission systems for large-scale offshore wind farms

J. Yang*, J.E. Fletcher

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter discusses network protection of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for large-scale offshore wind farms where the HVDC system utilizes voltage-source converters. The multi-terminal HVDC network topology and protection allocation and configuration are discussed with DC circuit breaker and protection relay configurations studied for different fault conditions. A detailed protection scheme is designed with a solution that does not require relay communication. Advanced understanding of protection system design and operation is necessary for reliable and safe operation of the meshed HVDC system under fault conditions. Meshed-HVDC systems are important as they will be used to interconnect large-scale offshore wind generation projects. Offshore wind generation is growing rapidly and offers a means of securing energy supply and addressing emissions targets whilst minimising community impacts. There are ambitious plans concerning such projects in Europe and in the Asia-Pacific region which will all require a reliable yet economic system to generate, collect, and transmit electrical power from renewable resources. Collective offshore wind farms are efficient and have potential as a significant low-carbon energy source. However, this requires a reliable collection and transmission system. Offshore wind power generation is a relatively new area and lacks systematic analysis of faults and associated operational experience to enhance further development. Appropriate fault protection schemes are required and this chapter highlights the process of developing and assessing such schemes. The chapter illustrates the basic meshed topology, identifies the need for distance evaluation, and appropriate cable models, then details the design and operation of the protection scheme with simulation results used to illustrate operation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLarge scale renewable power generation
Subtitle of host publicationadvances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage
EditorsJahangir Hossain, Apel Mahmud
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-4585-30-9
ISBN (Print)978-981-4585-29-3
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2014

Publication series

NameGreen energy and technology
ISSN (Print)1865-3529
ISSN (Electronic)1865-3537


  • fault overcurrent protection
  • high voltage direct current (HVDC)
  • meshed multi-terminal DC network
  • voltage source converter (VSC)
  • wind power generation


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