Recent advances in topical therapeutics for vitreoretinal diseases

Jonathan Gibson, Samantha McGinnigle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Eye drops are convenient for patients, but achieving therapeutic doses and maintaining sustained drug release without frequent re-application
to treat diseases of the retina has been largely unsuccessful. Topical administration of drugs is hindered by the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye and its highly effective defence mechanisms. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the experimental use of topical permeation-enhancing liposomes, emulsions, and microspheres to enhance absorption and penetration of drugs across membranes; allow controlled release of the drug; and to target drugs at distinct tissues to allow sufficient local bioavailability. In the near future it is hoped that improved technologies may provide means of sustained topical drug delivery for retinal therapy, with improved side-effect profiles and reduced cost compared with currently available clinical treatments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2-7
Number of pages6
JournalUS Ophthalmic Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, adaptation, and reproduction provided the original author(s) and source are given appropriate credit.


  • nanoparticles
  • eye drops
  • diabetes
  • retinal disorders
  • topical ocular delivery
  • liposomes


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