Retinal vessel tortuosity measures and their applications

Angelos Kalitzeos, Gregory Y.H. Lip, Rebekka Heitmar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Structural retinal vascular characteristics, such as vessel calibers, tortuosity and bifurcation angles are increasingly quantified in an objective manner, slowly replacing subjective qualitative disease classification schemes. This paper provides an overview of the current methodologies and calculations used to compute retinal vessel tortuosity. We set out the different parameter calculations and provide an insight into the clinical applications, while critically reviewing its pitfalls and shortcomings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-46
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • retinal vessel tortuosity
  • curvature
  • microcirculation
  • cardiovascular risk


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