Sampling and measurement methods for a study of childhood refractive error in a UK population

Lisa O'Donoghue, Kathryn J. Saunders, Julie F. McClelland, Nicola Logan, Alicja R. Rudnicka, Bernard Gilmartin, Christopher G. Owen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background There is a paucity of data describing the prevalence of childhood refractive error in the United Kingdom. The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction study, along with its sister study the Aston Eye Study, are the first population-based surveys of children using both random cluster sampling and cycloplegic autorefraction to quantify levels of refractive error in the United Kingdom.
Methods Children aged 6–7 years and 12–13 years were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary and post-primary schools, representative of the population of Northern Ireland as a whole. Measurements included assessment of visual acuity, oculomotor balance, ocular biometry and cycloplegic binocular open-field autorefraction. Questionnaires were used to identify putative risk factors for refractive error.
Results 399 (57%) of 6–7 years and 669 (60%) of 12–13 years participated. School participation rates did not vary statistically significantly with the size of the school, whether the school is urban or rural, or whether it is in a deprived/non-deprived area. The gender balance, ethnicity and type of schooling of participants are reflective of the Northern Ireland population.
Conclusions The study design, sample size and methodology will ensure accurate measures of the prevalence of refractive errors in the target population and will facilitate comparisons with other population-based refractive data.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1150-1154
Number of pages5
JournalBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number9
Early online date16 Jun 2010
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010


  • adolescent
  • child
  • epidemiologic methods
  • female
  • humans
  • male
  • Northern Ireland
  • physical examination
  • refractive errors
  • research design
  • vision tests


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