Sex‐Specific Differences in Survival and Heart Failure Hospitalization After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With or Without Defibrillation

Francisco Leyva, Tian Qiu, Abbasin Zegard, David Mcnulty, Felicity Evison, Daniel Ray, Maurizio Gasparini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Women are underrepresented in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) trials. Some studies suggest that women fare better than men after CRT. We sought to explore clinical outcomes in women and men undergoing CRT-defibrillation or CRT-pacing in real-world clinical practice. Methods and Results A national database (Hospital Episode Statistics for England) was used to quantify clinical outcomes in 43 730 patients (women: 10 890 [24.9%]; men: 32 840 [75.1%]) undergoing CRT over 7.6 years, (median follow-up 2.2 years, interquartile range, 1-4 years). In analysis of the total population, the primary end point of total mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.69-0.76) and the secondary end point of total mortality or heart failure hospitalization (aHR, 0.79, 95% CI 0.75-0.82) were lower in women, independent of known confounders. Total mortality (aHR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.70-0.76) and total mortality or heart failure hospitalization (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82) were lower for CRT-defibrillation than for CRT-pacing. In analyses of patients with (aHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.98) or without (aHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.66-0.73) a myocardial infarction, women had a lower total mortality. In sex-specific analyses, total mortality was lower after CRT-defibrillation in women (aHR, 0.83; P=0.013) and men (aHR, 0.69; P<0.001). Conclusions Compared with men, women lived longer and were less likely to be hospitalized for heart failure after CRT. In both sexes, CRT-defibrillation was superior to CRT-pacing with respect to survival and heart failure hospitalization. The longest survival after CRT was observed in women without a history of myocardial infarction.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere013485
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association,
Inc., by Wiley. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

Funding: Medtronic.


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • female sex
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator


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