Social cooperation and competition in the mixed reality space eXperience Induction Machine XIM

Martin Inderbitzin*, Sytse Wierenga, Aleksander Väljamäe, Ulysses Bernardet, Paul F.M.J. Verschure

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although the architecture of mixed reality spaces is becoming increasingly more complex, our understanding of human behavior in such spaces is still limited. Despite the sophisticated methods deployed in ethology and behavioral biology to track and analyze the actions and movements of animals, we rarely find studies that focus on the understanding of human behavior using such instruments. Here, we address this issue by analyzing social behavior and physical actions of multiple humans who are engaging in a game. As a paradigm of social interaction, we constructed a mixed reality football game in which two teams of two players have to cooperate and compete in order to win. This paradigm was deployed in the, so-called, eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), a human accessible, fully instrumented space that supports full body interaction in mixed reality without the need for body-mounted sensors. Our results show that winning and losing strategies can be discerned by specific behavioral patterns and proxemics. This demonstrates that mixed reality systems such as XIM provide new paradigms for the investigation of human social behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-158
Number of pages6
JournalVirtual Reality
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2009


  • Competition
  • Cooperation
  • Game play
  • Human behavior
  • Mixed reality
  • Proxemics
  • Social behavior
  • XIM


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