Strategies and attitudes on the management of myopia in clinical practice in Spain - 2022 update

Clara Martínez-Pérez, César Villa-Collar, Jacinto Santodomingo-Rubido, James S. Wolffsohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study analyses strategies and attitudes on myopia management reported by eye care practitioners (ECP) from Spain in 2022. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to ECPs worldwide via the internet through professional associations. The questionnaire was distributed by email to all registered Spanish optician-optometrists. Questions examined awareness of increasing myopia prevalence; perceived efficacy; uptake of available approaches; and reasons preventing further uptake of specific approaches. Results: Of 3,107 practitioners who participated in the study, 380 were Spanish ECPs. Using a 10-point scale, Spanish practitioners reported less concern about increasing pediatric myopia (8.3 ± 1.6) compared to ECP's worldwide (8.5 ± 1.9) (p < 0.001), but similar level of clinical activity in myopia control (7.8 ± 2.3 vs. 7.5 ± 2.5, respectively) (p > 0.05); however, around half of all prescribed treatments were single-vision distance spectacles/contact lenses both in Spain and in most regions, with Spanish practitioners prescribing less single-vision spectacles than African and Asian (p < 0.001), but more than Australasian practitioners (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between Spain and the other regions in the perceived efficacy of combined therapy, orthokeratology, and outdoor time (p > 0.05), with the former being perceived as the most effective myopia control method followed by orthokeratology. No significant differences were found between Spain and the world's average in factors preventing the prescription of myopia control approaches (p > 0.05). Spanish practitioners reported that embracing myopia management has a positive, but lower impact on customer loyalty, practice revenue and job satisfaction compared with the other regions (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Myopia control is increasing, although around half of practitioners still prescribe single-vision distance spectacles/contact lenses to young/progressive myopes. Combined therapy followed by orthokeratology were perceived as the most effective treatments. Embracing myopia management improved patient loyalty and job satisfaction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100496
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Optometry
Issue number1
Early online date23 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (


  • Myopia control
  • Myopia management
  • Myopia progression
  • Contact lenses
  • Spectacles


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