Symbiotic approaches to work and technology

Job de Haan, Jos Benders, David J. Bennett

Research output: Preprint or Working paperWorking paper


Symbiotic design methods aim to take into account technical, social and organizational criteria simultaneously. Over the years, many symbiotic methods have been developed and applied in various countries. Nevertheless, the diagnosis that only technical criteria receive attention in the design of production systems, is still made repeatedly. Examples of symbiotic approaches are presented at three different levels: technical systems, organizations, and the process. From these, discussion points are generated concerning the character of the approaches, the importance of economic motives, the impact of national environments, the necessity of a guided design process, the use of symbiotic methods, and the roles of participants in the design process.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherTilburg University Press
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 1994

Publication series

NameResearch Memorandum
PublisherTilburg University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration


  • symbiotic approaches
  • work
  • technology


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