The link between Keratoconus and posterior segment parameters: An updated, comprehensive review

Hassan Hashemi, Mohsen Heirani*, Renato Ambrósio, Farhad Hafezi, Shehzad A. Naroo, Masoud Khorrami-Nejad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Keratoconus (KCN) has been typically known as a disorder with effects limited to the cornea. Because of this viewpoint, less attention has been devoted to its effects on the posterior segment structures. We aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the potential link between KCN and posterior segment structures and their functions. It is clear from the extensive evidence in the literature that KCN can be associated with morphological and functional changes in different parts of the posterior segment. It is worth noting that anatomical changes have been not only noted in several layers of the retina but also in the optic nerve head and the choroid. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this observation, including incidents induced by oxidative stress in keratoconic corneas and retinal adaptions to the distorted image that lands on the retina. Consequently, when KCN has been diagnosed, it seems practical to consider assessing the retinal and choroidal profile using optical coherence tomography and potentially functional abnormalities through electrophysiology procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-122
Number of pages7
JournalOcular Surface
Early online date8 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Choroid
  • Keratoconus
  • Optic nerve head
  • Posterior segment
  • Retina


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