Transient dynamics in mode-locked all-PM Er-doped fiber laser with NALM

D. Stoliarov*, I. Kudelin, A. Koviarov, E. Rafailov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, we utilized the Time-Stretch Dispersive Fourier Transform (TS-DFT) method to explore rapid transient states in both time and frequency domains of an all-polarization-maintaining dispersion-managed figure-eight mode-locked laser with Nonlinear Amplifying Loop Mirror (NALM). We detail the different stages of build-up dynamics at varying pump powers, encompassing the Q-switching (QS) stage, transient single pulse formation, pulsation beating patterns, bound states, and the final transition to a single pulse state. Our findings reveal that the mode-locked bound state regime emerges from a single pulse stage following QS, different from previously reported directly resulting from QS pulses or relaxation oscillations. In a novel contribution to the field, we have experimentally demonstrated the transient single pulse stage of build-up dynamics and compared it with the fundamental mode-locked single pulse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129852
Number of pages7
JournalOptics Communications
Early online date23 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (

Acknowledgements & Funding: This research was supported by the EPSRC project EP/W002868/1 and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement 871277.


  • Bound state
  • Mode locking
  • Nonlinear amplifying loop mirror
  • Polarization maintaining fiber
  • Q-switching
  • Soliton molecules
  • Time-stretch dispersive fourier transform


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