Uncovering the link between well-being and factory performance among workers in China: a longitudinal study

Minette Bellingan*, Catherine Tilley, Mukesh Kumar, Luciano Batista, Steve Evans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Companies are concerned about the well-being of workers in their supply chains, but conventional audits fail to uncover critical problems. Yet, if the happy worker – productive worker thesis is correct, it would benefit factories in fast-developing countries, particularly China which is key to many global supply chains, to ensure the well-being of their workers. The authors set out to better understand the relationship between well-being and performance in four Chinese factories. Design/methodology/approach: Over 12-months the authors collected digital diaries from 466 workers in four factories, and monthly data about the performance of their factories. The authors used this data to gain insights into the well-being of workers in these factories; to design experimental interventions to improve this; and to consider any effects these had on factory performance. Findings: The experiments showed that training interventions to improve workers' well-being through their work relationships and individual skills improved not just a factory's general worker well-being, but also some aspects of its performance and worker retention. Thus, it brought benefits not only for the workers but also for the factory owners and their client companies. Originality/value: While there is a significant body of research investigating the happy worker – productive worker thesis, this was not conducted in Chinese factories. The authors’ work demonstrates that in this and similar environments, workers' eudaimonic well-being is more important than might be assumed, and that in this context there is a relationship between well-being and performance which can be practically addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Operations and Production Management
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited. This author's accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact permissions@emerald.com


  • worker well-being
  • digital diaries
  • CSR audits
  • supply chain factories
  • factory operational performance
  • factory productivity


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