Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol

Gill Windle, Samantha Gregory, Andrew Newman, Anna Goulding, Dave O'Brien, Clive Parkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with
dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to
improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an
absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in
terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying
an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how
interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited.
Methods/Design: A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions
influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the
circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping
search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across
a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles
and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and
outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics,
detail about the quantity (‘dose’) of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper
and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data,
identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes.
Discussion: Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of
an optimal, replicable arts intervention for people with dementia as part of our broader research programme, titled
‘Dementia and Imagination’ (funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council). Forthcoming work under this
programme of research will test this theoretically informed intervention in three different geographical areas of the
UK. The production of freely available practice guidance is a key aspect of dissemination.
Trial registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42014008702.
Original languageEnglish
Article number91
JournalSystematic Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2014

Bibliographical note

© 2014 Windle et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain
Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article,
unless otherwise stated.


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