TY - JOUR

T1 - Vacuum spacetimes of embedding class two

AU - Barnes, Alan

N1 - Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Doubt is cast on the much quoted results of Yakupov that the torsion vector in embedding class two vacuum space-times is necessarily a gradient vector and that class 2 vacua of Petrov type III do not exist. The rst result is equivalent to the fact that the two second fundamental forms associated with the embedding necessarily commute and has been assumed in most later investigations of class 2 vacuum space-times. Yakupov stated the result without proof, but hinted that it followed purely algebraically from his identity: Rijkl Ckl = 0 where Cij is the commutator of the two second fundamental forms of the embedding.From Yakupov's identity, it is shown that the only class two vacua with non-zero commutator Cij must necessarily be of Petrov type III or N. Several examples are presented of non-commuting second fundamental forms that satisfy Yakupovs identity and the vacuum condition following from the Gauss equation; both Petrov type N and type III examples occur. Thus it appears unlikely that his results could follow purely algebraically. The results obtained so far do not constitute denite counter-examples to Yakupov's results as the non-commuting examples could turn out to be incompatible with the Codazzi and Ricci embedding equations. This question is currently being investigated.

AB - Doubt is cast on the much quoted results of Yakupov that the torsion vector in embedding class two vacuum space-times is necessarily a gradient vector and that class 2 vacua of Petrov type III do not exist. The rst result is equivalent to the fact that the two second fundamental forms associated with the embedding necessarily commute and has been assumed in most later investigations of class 2 vacuum space-times. Yakupov stated the result without proof, but hinted that it followed purely algebraically from his identity: Rijkl Ckl = 0 where Cij is the commutator of the two second fundamental forms of the embedding.From Yakupov's identity, it is shown that the only class two vacua with non-zero commutator Cij must necessarily be of Petrov type III or N. Several examples are presented of non-commuting second fundamental forms that satisfy Yakupovs identity and the vacuum condition following from the Gauss equation; both Petrov type N and type III examples occur. Thus it appears unlikely that his results could follow purely algebraically. The results obtained so far do not constitute denite counter-examples to Yakupov's results as the non-commuting examples could turn out to be incompatible with the Codazzi and Ricci embedding equations. This question is currently being investigated.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=81455141952&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/314/1/012091/meta

U2 - 10.1088/1742-6596/314/1/012091

DO - 10.1088/1742-6596/314/1/012091

M3 - Article

SN - 1742-6588

VL - 314

JO - Journal of Physics: Conference Series

JF - Journal of Physics: Conference Series

IS - 1

M1 - 012091

ER -